Neurofeedback treats a variety of conditions in a safe and effective manner because it works at the subconscious level.* It’s goal is to change the brain by creating new electrical activity through a process of measurement and reinforcement. Quite simply, one is reinforced for changing their brain waves at a subconscious level through the use of computers. The brain learns to self-regulate, which calms the nervous system, reducing or eliminating symptoms. Without self-regulation, many problems of the central nervous system can result – Lack of Focus, Anxiety, Depression and Physical Symptoms, to name a few. Neurofeedback is used to treat ADHD, Autism, Anxiety, Stress, Emotional Distress, Behavioral Issues, Mood Iissues, Pain, Lyme, PANS/PANDAS, Headaches, Concussion, TBI and a variety of other issues.* Almost any brain, regardless of its level of function (or dysfunction), can be trained to function better.* Consistent with the research, more than 90% of our clients report significant improvement!
Biofeedback is a technique one can use to learn to control the body’s functions, such as heart rate, skin temperature or breath. With Biofeedback, one is connected to electrical sensors that measure and give information (feedback) about the body (bio). This feedback helps one focus on making subtle changes in the body, such as relaxing certain muscles, to achieve the desired results, such as reducing pain or controlling body temperature to reduce stress. It differs from Neurofeedback because it requires conscious control over one’s thoughts and autonomic functions. Biofeedback gives one the power to use thoughts to control the body, often reducing stress or improving a health condition or physical performance.*
A QEEG is an EEG brain map. Electroencephalography (EEG) is the measurement of electrical patterns at the surface of the scalp which reflect cortical activity, and are commonly referred to as “brainwaves”. Compared to an MRI, it’s less expensive but still provides very specific information about cortical timing.* The brain is incredibly fast and even slight differences in timing in a brain area can have profound functional implications. In very simple terms, a quantitative EEG is a computer analysis of the EEG data. It is a visual way to see brain functioning in terms of brain waves. We look at 19 channels of simultaneous EEG recording under specific recording conditions. This EEG data is compared against a reference database of other people’s EEGs. The analysis identifies and highlights variations from the norm (average). For instance, the QEEG report could show any brain areas where there is too much or too little EEG activity compared to the norm. It could also show which areas are not communicating well with other areas. Excessive EEG activity or poor communication typically correlate with less brain efficiency. QEEG’s are an amazing tool that gives information about issues impacting brain functioning through pattern analysis. Distinct EEG patterns are used to identify attention deficits, depression, anxiety, concussion, and so on. Dr. Roseann is a high level practitioner and interprets the QEEG data herself rather than having to send it out to someone else to be interpreted. She then designs Neurofeedback, Advanced Bio-Regulation, and other treatment protocols based on that data. QEEG is used for both treatment planning and progress monitoring.*
Getting a QEEG is a non-invasive and painless process. A cap is placed on your head which has sensors that record the electrical activity of the brain. Data is taken with your eyes open and closed. That data is statically analyzed and then a meeting with Dr. Roseann is scheduled to review the QEEG, clinical history, and treatment recommendations.
*The effectiveness of diagnosis and treatment vary by patient and condition. Dr. Roseann Capanna-Hodge & Associates does not guarantee certain results.
Below are standard formats and examples for basic bibliographic information recommended by the American Psychological Association (APA). For more information on the APA format, see http://www.apastyle.org.
Your list of works cited should begin at the end of the paper on a new page with the centered title, References. Alphabetize the entries in your list by the author's last name, using the letter-by-letter system (ignore spaces and other punctuation.) Only the initials of the first and middle names are given. If the author's name is unknown, alphabetize by the title, ignoring any A, An, or The.
For dates, spell out the names of months in the text of your paper, but abbreviate them in the list of works cited, except for May, June, and July. Use either the day-month-year style (22 July 1999) or the month-day-year style (July 22, 1999) and be consistent. With the month-day-year style, be sure to add a comma after the year unless another punctuation mark goes there.
Underlining or Italics?
When reports were written on typewriters, the names of publications were underlined because most typewriters had no way to print italics. If you write a bibliography by hand, you should still underline the names of publications. But, if you use a computer, then publication names should be in italics as they are below. Always check with your instructor regarding their preference of using italics or underlining. Our examples use italics.
All APA citations should use hanging indents, that is, the first line of an entry should be flush left, and the second and subsequent lines should be indented 1/2".
Capitalization, Abbreviation, and Punctuation
The APA guidelines specify using sentence-style capitalization for the titles of books or articles, so you should capitalize only the first word of a title and subtitle. The exceptions to this rule would be periodical titles and proper names in a title which should still be capitalized. The periodical title is run in title case, and is followed by the volume number which, with the title, is also italicized.
If there is more than one author, use an ampersand (&) before the name of the last author. If there are more than six authors, list only the first one and use et al. for the rest.
Place the date of publication in parentheses immediately after the name of the author. Place a period after the closing parenthesis. Do not italicize, underline, or put quotes around the titles of shorter works within longer works.
Author's last name, first initial. (Publication date). Book title. Additional information. City of publication: Publishing company.
Allen, T. (1974). Vanishing wildlife of North America. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society.
Boorstin, D. (1992). The creators: A history of the heroes of the imagination. New York: Random House.
Nicol, A. M., & Pexman, P. M. (1999). Presenting your findings: A practical guide for creating tables. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Searles, B., & Last, M. (1979). A reader's guide to science fiction. New York: Facts on File, Inc.
Toomer, J. (1988). Cane. Ed. Darwin T. Turner. New York: Norton.
Encyclopedia & DictionaryFormat:
Author's last name, first initial. (Date). Title of Article. Title of Encyclopedia (Volume, pages). City of publication: Publishing company.
Bergmann, P. G. (1993). Relativity. In The new encyclopedia britannica (Vol. 26, pp. 501-508). Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica.
Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary (10th ed.). (1993). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.
Pettingill, O. S., Jr. (1980). Falcon and Falconry. World book encyclopedia. (pp. 150-155). Chicago: World Book.
Tobias, R. (1991). Thurber, James. Encyclopedia americana. (p. 600). New York: Scholastic Library Publishing.
Magazine & Newspaper ArticlesFormat:
Author's last name, first initial. (Publication date). Article title. Periodical title, volume number(issue number if available), inclusive pages.
Note: Do not enclose the title in quotation marks. Put a period after the title. If a periodical includes a volume number, italicize it and then give the page range (in regular type) without "pp." If the periodical does not use volume numbers, as in newspapers, use p. or pp. for page numbers.
Note: Unlike other periodicals, p. or pp. precedes page numbers for a newspaper reference in APA style.
Harlow, H. F. (1983). Fundamentals for preparing psychology journal articles. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55, 893-896.
Henry, W. A., III. (1990, April 9). Making the grade in today's schools. Time, 135, 28-31.
Kalette, D. (1986, July 21). California town counts town to big quake. USA Today, 9, p. A1.
Kanfer, S. (1986, July 21). Heard any good books lately? Time, 113, 71-72.
Trillin, C. (1993, February 15). Culture shopping. New Yorker, pp. 48-51.
Website or WebpageFormat:
Author's name. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number, Retrieved month day, year, from full URL
Author's name. (Date of publication). Title of work. Retrieved month day, year, from full URL
Note: When citing Internet sources, refer to the specific website document. If a document is undated, use "n.d." (for no date) immediately after the document title. Break a lengthy URL that goes to another line after a slash or before a period. Continually check your references to online documents. There is no period following a URL.
Note: If you cannot find some of this information, cite what is available.
Devitt, T. (2001, August 2). Lightning injures four at music festival. The Why? Files. Retrieved January 23, 2002, from http://whyfiles.org/137lightning/index.html
Dove, R. (1998). Lady freedom among us. The Electronic Text Center. Retrieved June 19, 1998, from Alderman Library, University of Virginia website: http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/subjects/afam.html
Note: If a document is contained within a large and complex website (such as that for a university or a government agency), identify the host organization and the relevant program or department before giving the URL for the document itself. Precede the URL with a colon.
Fredrickson, B. L. (2000, March 7). Cultivating positive emotions to optimize health and well-being. Prevention & Treatment, 3, Article 0001a. Retrieved November 20, 2000, from http://journals.apa.org/prevention/volume3/pre0030001a.html
GVU's 8th WWW user survey. (n.d.). Retrieved August 8, 2000, from http://www.cc.gatech.edu/gvu/usersurveys/survey1997-10/
Health Canada. (2002, February). The safety of genetically modified food crops. Retrieved March 22, 2005, from http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/english/protection/biologics_genetics/gen_mod_foods/genmodebk.html
Hilts, P. J. (1999, February 16). In forecasting their emotions, most people flunk out. New York Times. Retrieved November 21, 2000, from http://www.nytimes.com
Sample Bibliography: APA Reference List Format
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