Gibbs Reflective Cycle In Clinical Teaching Assignment

Analyse, deliver, evaluate and reflect a teaching experience in clinical placement

rodrigo | December 11, 2012

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The aim of this essay is to  analyse, deliver, evaluate and reflect a teaching experience in clinical placement. So also as utilising appropriate theories to support my preferred method of  teaching and how the teaching  session was delivered.  I will also  consider in my  discussion the role of teaching, learning and supervision session evaluation and personal evaluation.

I  organised a teaching package  that  is beneficial to  nursing staff, support workers, students, healthcare assistants and all teaching staff  within my placement that are willing to increase their knowledge and skills ,most especially confidence in this area.  I   designed  a teaching session which would  permit  for different learning needs and styles to be  considered .  The course objectives (Armitage et al, 2003) were  identified  as: understand  the clinical use of  the effectiveness and limitation of ECT, demonstrate an understanding of  the history of ECT.

It is essential that you   know where learning finishes and what you would like your learners to know  after  learning  come to an end. The outcome of learning and the  Course objectives, provide a clear stop  point for a teaching session (Reece and Walker, 2003).

Because  individual learner have their systematic ways of learning, introducing different styles of teaching   can be used to meet the different needs and preferences of individuals. According to   Kolb  ( 1984 )there are four learning styles which learners learn better   diverger: this learner learns better by undergoing an experience and then reflecting upon it,   Assimilator this learner prefers to observe and think,  converger: this learner like to  think while  doing  and  accommodator: they  learn best through action, by doing and feeling.

Honey and Mumford (quote in Hillier, 2002) also identify four learning styles. They  developed this further, using an 80 item questionnaire  they were able to identify individual  learning styles that are important,  based on Kolbs’, but renamed ‘activist’ : these learners enjoys immediate experience but becomes bored easily, ‘reflector’ : collects information and is a thoughtful listener, ‘theorists’: these are learner that likes to analyse,  and  ‘pragmatists’: these are learners who like to try out ideas and theories.  Experimental.  According to  Armitage et al (2003) effective learners have skills in each of these areas, but to varying degrees.

Fleming identified different learning styles based on how information is presented, such as the auditory learning style (Fleming and Baume, 2006).  Other  styles  identified by Fleming is the visual styles.  Fleming created a questionnaire which aimed to identify the learners  preferred learning style.  This questionnaire was later updated to include the read / write style as Fleming identified that some learners visual preference is for pictures, graphs, maps etc. whereas others is for written word (Fleming, 2009).  Fleming and Baume state that understanding learning styles can improve learning by matching strategies with styles (2006).

Learner  have different way of  learning styles, and different stage of understanding (Hillier, 2003. Reece  and Walker, 2003).  Individual  learner also has specific goals and expectations (Armitage et al, 2003). I decided  not to utilise the  questionnaires among the groups because l felt it will be of more benefit in one to one teaching rather than in a group setting .   variety in teaching methods has  provide to be  greatly effective using a variety of media in a teaching  session promotes interest and motivation.   By utilising media aimed at multiple senses there is ‘a greater likelihood that the learner will perceive what is intended’ (Reece and Walker, 2003: 159).  I decided to make the attendance at this teaching session optional, As motivation is an essential aspect in the effectiveness of learning (Armitage et al, 2003).

My chosen topic for my teaching session was Electro- Convulsive Therapy ( ECT).  The rationale for choosing this topic is because l have observed that it is an intervention commonly used in  the clinical practice area and because of its controversial description in psychiatry. I   will be exploring in a critical manner the clinical use of the effectiveness and limitation of ECT.   I structure the objectives of the teaching session with consciousness to time an attention span because l learnt that the average student attention span is between twenty minutes after which learner find it difficult to concentrate on the teaching   Penner (1984). According to  Erickson and Strummer,(1991) recommends that special attention and time to  preparation, illustration and demonstration in other to be  able to respond to student confusion or questions. Shulman, (1987) also  stated that an important characteristics of an effective teacher is the ability to take difficult concepts and transform them in such a ways that students can understand through the use of examples,  metaphors ,and  analogies .

I sent e-mail to all the nursing staff and the administration staff  few  weeks prior to my teaching session inviting them to attend my teaching session.

I ensure that l got a suitable environment for my teaching ,  in  order to facilitate my teaching session  I required somewhere where I could expose my learner to some theories. According to Spouse (1998), the environment used for learning  can  have  influence  on  the learners interest to the teaching and how they develop their practical skills  development. Having  this  in mind, I considered  an area free from noise and where there is no  distraction which will benefit  my teaching delivery. I was lucky to find the training room vacant with the help  of  the  nurse manager, a quiet area where my learners could become engaged within the relative safety of a restricted audience, limited to only those within a teaching/learning capacity (Spouse, 1988).Another thing that l knew it helped my teaching was the learners feeling of safety within  the  environment use , it enhanced the learner and general experience.

On the day of my teaching session, I organized my teaching session notes, read through them for   grammatical errors, and read through the teaching   handout for  some  additional points that needed to be added or removed. There was  cross  ventilation  in  the room and l made sure that there was enough water, cups  and snacks on a table for the comfort  and convenience of the staff.  I ensured that the environment was conducive for everyone.


It was also explainable to  another  person ,meeting the needs of learners whose preferred style is

auditory / verbal (Reece and Walker, 2003).

I used Microsoft power  point  which allowed me to do my presentation in a way that met the needs of   auditory and visual learners  as I could include written information alongside information presented in pictorial and video format, which also meets the needs of the read / write style identified by Fleming (2009).

Moreover, ,l gave out  handouts summarising the main points support this method (Hillier, 2002) and also meet  the needs of learners whose preferred learning style is a combination of visual and verbal (Reece and Walker, 2003).

I then proceed  by introducing the topic I chose to teach, Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an extremely effective method of treatment for severe depression, that  does not respond to medications or other forms of treatment (Nancy and James 2002).  The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) (2003a) defined Electro convulsive therapy (ECT) as a medical treatment for severe mental illnesses in which a small, carefully controlled amount of electricity is introduced into the brain and used in conjunction with anaesthesia and muscle relaxant medications to produce a mild generalised seizure .Guidance on ECT recommended that ‘‘ECT is used only to achieve rapid and short-term improvement of severe symptoms after an adequate trial of other treatment options has proven ineffective or when the condition is considered to be potentially life-threatening in individuals with severe depressive illness, catatonia and a prolonged or severe manic  episode’’. NICE ( 2003b).

I discussed about the routine physical check that should be carried out to make sure that the patient is physically fit for the series of general anaesthetics involved in a course of ECT and the treatment itself. RCN (1987) stipulates that these checks should include full blood count; physical examination, X- rays, ECG, urinalysis, and lever function test (LFT) are required.

I also discussed the roles of nurses and student nurses, which includes to  develop  therapeutic relationship with the client to build trust, to   provide emotional and educational support for patient’s behaviour, memory, and functional ability prior and post prior ` ECT.

The teaching session was interactive,  the  significance of  my chosen topic was openly discussed   and there was lots of contributions,  questions , comments, and individual opinions was made know.

I also delivered teaching on  engaging with client that suffers from severe depression, because it’s a         crucial  aspect of care that builds a relationship with clients,  careers  Bleach and Ryan (1995).

The teaching style I used was humanistic approach. I made the session interactive and informal.

Milligan (1995), Stated that, informal sitting arrangement facilities adults learning and best can be achieved through learning centred approach because it enhances learner’s self- concept, promotes autonomy, self direction and critical thinking. I  Reflected after my teaching session, I had a   reflection on my teaching session and my individual attributes.  Life  is  the basic for reflection and without it ,there appears to be no discernible basis for being and knowing Taylor ( 2002 ).

Reflection is also very important in other to respond to clients in an individual way,  and  in other to enhance our  knowledge in a dynamic way to grow professionally and also to  increase how effective  professional . I will be using Gibb’s,  six stage problem solving reflective cycle to evaluate and reflect on my  teaching  session .  Because  it  primarily written as an educational tool for beginner reflectors (Gibbs, 1988).

My teaching session focused  on  clients  that  have  mental health problem  with severe depression. The teaching session was interactive. The role of nurses and student nurses in the care and treatment, the need for engagement, the need for holistic care, the significance of the session to the placement area and care delivery for clients .The importance of the session to the placement area and care delivery for clients. This  session  also focused on some Mental health nurse that view clients with depression as difficult and challenging to be professional and give holistic care without prejudice.

I was very nervous at the  start of the teaching session, most especially about the fact that l might not be able to answer questions I will be asked after the teaching session . But within  a short time l became very relaxed, the staff showed interest in the topic and the handout was a great help.

I had to do an evaluation on the whole session, to determine whether or not the teaching and learning had been effective, l felt confidence, because the aims, objective and positive  opinion l targeted to put across in the session was well explained and analysed by me and it was well received and understood by the listeners. The challenge l faced was distraction during the session. Because of  some staff had to excused themselves to attend to emergency on the ward,   distress calls,  depot to be administered and emergency reviews with the consultant. I was able to pin point my weaknesses and strengths from  and how l can improve  better  after l collected the evaluation forms l gave out after the teaching session.  Richardson ( 2005) ,stated that Questionnaires for feedback are important in establishing the quality and effectiveness of teaching.  This feedback help my teaching method  and  style to become more effective in future.

I realised l had to take criticism more positively for my  teaching  session  to  be more  effective and successful. I also felt l needed to be more competent. What  I  could have done better when it arose again ,l will include the roles of relatives and careers  in my  presentation because  they play a vital role in the clients well being. I should have also  included literature related all pre- treatment checklists in my handout , as staff criticised me positively about these two points listed.  Also, I  will  have  given  out pamphlets to back up handouts distributed. I should also have researched recent studies to  support  my teaching session, l will also involve my mentor in supervising my presentations before l start the teaching session. Supervision is a pedagogical process where clinical experiences are made clear and systematized in a professional context   Severinsson ( 1994 ).

In conclusion, this assignment has facilitate me to  improve my confidence and competence in delivery  teaching  session. The teaching session has helped  me to reflect on positive and negative feedbacks. In   addition, l am able to take criticism  positively and constructively. The teaching session has helped  me to recognise hindrances  to successful teaching session, teaching styles, difficulty  to learning understanding learning for teaching , arrangement , delivery and evaluation of teaching sessions. furthermore this experience has made me to be aware of my learning style. My learning style is a reflector (a reflector takes a more cautious approach and thinks things though before committing to action)  . This teaching session knowledge has widened my skills, values and competencies. In future, teaching session by writer will be more professional, evidence based and competent.


Armitage, A., Bryant, R., Dunnill, R., Renwick, M., Hayes, D., Hudson, A., Kent, J & Lawes, S. (2003) Teaching and Training in Post-Compulsory Education. 2nd ed. Berkshire: Open University Press.

Bleach, A and Ryan, P (1995). Engagement and relationship in community support for Mental Health. London; The Sainsbury centre for mental health.

Erickson, B,L and Strommer, D,W. (1991) Teaching college Freshmen. Sam Francisco, Jossey-Bass.

Fleming, N. & Baume, D. (2006) ‘Learning Styles Again: VARKing up the Right Tree!’ Educational Developments 7 (4) pp. 4-7.

Gibbs, G. (1988) Learning by doing: A Guide to teaching methods. Further education unit, oxford Brookes University.

Hillier, Y. (2002) Reflective Teaching in Further and Adult Education. London: Continuum.

Honey P and Mumford A (1992) The manual of Learning Styles, 3rd edition, Maidenhead: Peter    Honey Publications.

Kolb D (1984) Experiential Learning: Experience as the source of learning and development. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.

Milligan, F (1995). In the defence of andragogy. Nurse Education Today 15:22-27.

NANCY, E.B. AND JAMES, W.J. (2002) Electroconvulsive Therapy: A Guide.  Madison, USA: Madison Institute of Medicine.

NATIONAL INSTITUTE for HEALTH AND CLINICAL EXCELLENCE, NICE (2003a) Appraisal of Electroconvulsive Therapy: Decision of Appeal Panel. London: NICE.

NATIONAL INSTITUTE for HEALTH AND CLINICAL EXCELLENCE, NICE (2003b) Guidance on the Use of Electro Convulsive Therapy, Technology Appraisal No 59. London: NICE

Penner, J.G (1984). Why many college teachers cannot lecture. Springfield Ill, Thomas.

Reece, I. & Walker, S. (2003) Teaching, Training and Learning: a Practical Guide. 5th ed. Tyne and Wear: Business Education Publishers Limited.

Richardson, T. (2005) ‘Instruments for obtaining student feedback: a review of the literature’ Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education 30 (4) pp. 387-415.

Severinsson, E (1994). The concept of supervision in psychiatry care-compare with leadership and mentorship; A review of literature. Journal of Nursing management 2,271-278.

Shulman, L.S (1987). Knowledge and Teaching Foundation of the New reform. Harvard Education Review, 57(1) 1-22.

Spouse J (1998) Learning to Nurse Through Legitimate Peripheral Participation, Nurse Education Today, Vol 18, pp345-351.

Taylor, B (2001) Reflective Practice. A guide for Nursing and midwives. Berkshire: Open University Press.



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