A summary of Charles I, Civil War and the Restoration
Charles came to the throne in 1625. Relations between Charles I and Parliament gradually got worse. There were clashes about foreign policy and many Puritan Protestants disliked Charles' religious policy. Charles married a French Catholic against the wishes of Parliament. Charles revived old laws and taxes without the agreement of Parliament. When Parliament complained in 1629, he dismissed them. Until 1640, Charles ruled without a Parliament – this period is often referred to as the 'Eleven Years Tyranny'.
War with Scotland forced Charles to recall Parliament. Instead of granting Charles money, Parliament sent him the Grand Remonstrance (1641). This was a list of 204 complaints about the way he was running the country. After Charles had tried and failed to arrest the five leaders of the Parliament, a civil war broke out.
Civil war, Charles’ execution and England as a republic
Parliament had the support of the south-east of England, merchants, London and the navy. Charles' forces were gradually worn down. After Oliver Cromwell set up the New Model Army, Parliament won decisive victories at Marston Moor (1644) and Naseby (1645).
Charles surrendered in 1646. He failed a second time to defeat Parliament during the the Second Civil War in 1648. Parliament put him on trial for treason and he was executed in 1649.
Historians in the past portrayed the Civil War as the time when Parliament defeated the power of the king. England was a republic for the next 11 years, ruled by Oliver Cromwell.
The restoration of Charles II
The Civil War, however, achieved no permanent change in the balance of power between king and Parliament.
In 1660, Charles II was restored to the throne and continued, as his father had done, trying to rule without Parliament.
Causes of the English Civil War
- Length: 494 words (1.4 double-spaced pages)
- Rating: Excellent
The civil war broke out in 1642, and was a war that is within a country, it has many reasons for happening. This essay will explain and categorise the main cause’s fop the civil war. I will start by listing the genres of events.
In the 1640’s power and politics were vital for social standard and anyone with power was important and respected so naturally and event such as the civil war would have had politics as one of the main issues for happening. Charles becoming king was obviously a cause because it was his decisions that influenced the war itself and him who raised the flag. Also in 1629 Charles decided to close down parliament because he felt they were exerting too much power than they should, also it almost seems as if Charles is afraid of parliament or jealous because he feels that he is entitled to the “divine right of kings” and seeing parliament using all this power made him feel as if he was less and not as important. This was then followed by the “eleven years of tyranny” which ended in 1640 when he recalled parliament due to shortage of money and mistakes he had made.
An interesting decision Charles made was to marry Henrietta a foreign royal, some people would have said this was purely religiously influenced because she was a catholic and people feared he married her because his desire was to make England catholic. Others have said that it was a power driven choice because he wanted to unite the two countries and gain more power. There are other more religious based events such as when Charles ordered Henry Laud to make a new prayer book which was to be read around the England. This caused an outrage between his people who could now no longer trust him. As if this wasn’t enough he then ordered the book to be read in Scotland this was in 1637 and was possibly one of his worst choices, this was because at the time Scots were angry that Charles hadn’t turned protestant because he was raised as protestant and on top of that they were extremely insulted that Charles would even for a second believe that they would accept this book. This then resulted in rampage and violence so the book was taken away.
The saying “money is the root of all evil” applies strongly in the making of the civil war.
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English Civil War Main Issues Main Cause Scots Married Parliament Scotland Tyranny Shortage
A short term cause that Charles made was that he needed more money, so he decided to make everybody pay ship money which was a tax that went towards the navy, this upset his people and angered them.
To conclude after look at all possible reasons for the civil war breaking out in 1642 I think the most strong and possible answer is when parliament passed the Grand remmonse because those rules that parliament applied have stuck with us all the way through and have changed history.