Human beings are curious in nature. They constantly seek to find answers to questions pertaining to their existence, evolution and why things are the way they are in the world today. It is this characteristic that drove many scientists towards the quest in discovering the origins of human beings. Evolution theories have been defined as those that seek to examine and provide fulfilling answers in regard to the beginning of life and the transformations that have taken place so far, resulting to the upright beings that we are today. Ashoke, Mukhopadhyay (2009) established that the evolution theory includes,
‘A whole range of individual organisms normally categorized into species, genus, family and kingdom. It postulates the emergence of complex living organisms from non-living matter by way of a much smaller number of less complex ancestors. It claims that all life on earth can be traced back to one primitive organism, developing spontaneously and by chance, probably from a primordial soup of electrified chemicals.’’
Among those who strived to explain the origins of man was Charles Darwin, a popular scientist of the 18th century. Even though the evolution theories were already in existence before his birth, it is Darwin who researched and perfected the findings that were later adapted by other world scientists and used as facts in human evolution studies. Several academic works have since been written on Charles Darwin’s findings on the evolution theory. The section below provides an analysis done by various scholars on his work.
Darwin’s Theory of Evolution-Literature Review
It is evident that the universe, including all living things on earth has undergone the process of evolution. Charles Darwin’s Evolution Theory is one of the theories regarding the process of evolution of life on earth. Most educated human beings consider this theory as highly self-evident even though extensive scrutiny reveals an in-depth scientific empirical support. This is a scenario where the truth has not been allowed to get in the way of good stories. The following sections provide a brief outline of the manifesting shortcomings of the theory of evolution of Charles Darwin. This article aims to promote discussions and thoughts about Darwin’s theory of Evolution.
Two other researchers, Dr. John Ankerberg and Dr. John Weldon from the Ankerberg Theological Research Institute came out strongly to question the relevance of discussing Darwin’s Theory of evolution in the modern day, especially after it was adapted by the world’s population. They hold that it is still critical to analyse the evolution theory as especially the two facets that deal with mutations that are beneficial and the natural selection process.
Did the universe evolve or did God create it in seven days. Human beings have been unable to prove the existence of the human race, and they have only provided various academic hypothesis. Darwin concluded that an organism encounters evolution when exposed in gradually dynamic surroundings. It is through such exposure that makes some creatures better survive in the best suitable way than their counterparts.
The evolution theory advanced by Darwin provides a description that involves microorganisms that eventually went through evolution from apes and through natural selection, they became humans. Different religions have presented the evolution of the universe through the Bible consists God’s creation of the universe in seven days. This is shown through Eve and Adam as the first human species on earth. Religion and science have conflicted because science has developed concepts that contrast religious concepts Richards, R. J. (2005).
Due to previous science that involves religion, scientists have intertwined several hypotheses of religion and science. Therefore, philosophers insisted that man was entirely created by God. Charles Darwin proposed evolution as a process of natural selection, which leads to reduced moral philosophy materials. The evolution theory, as advanced by Charles Darwin, constitutes survival for only those who can fit or those organisms that adapt, survive over those who have failed to adapt to the surrounding environment. According to Darwin, non-organic matter produced organic matter via evolution.
Original lives underwent a natural process that involves random mutations thus becoming complex forms of lives. The primary argument is that matter cats on the matter within a period to become anything either non-organic or organic. Organic lives might have sprung out of single organisms by the process of macro-evolution. Complex forms of life might have evolved through random processes of mutations occasioned by the surrounding environment. New forms of species might have been formed by the natural environment, which acts on the matter within a specified period. Based on the records of fossils, sufficient evidence has not been availed about the evolution of species from random mutations to form adapted organisms.
Darwin’s theory of natural selection explains how a one-cell molecule produced species. Over a period of thousands of years, species evolved and became complex organisms because of survival for the fittest. Those organisms who had highly adapted to the surrounding environment, survived throughout the years because they were positive in adapting to the dynamics of the surrounding environment. Some species were successful in adapting to moderate environments while others adapted to the harsh environments Nardo, D. (2007).
Species took years to evolve and become perfect organisms. Because species adapted to the environment, the process of natural selection provides evidence that species developed from less complex organisms. Darwin arrived at this philosophical conclusion through observation. He claims that species developed from macro-evolution. Thus, through evolution and the natural selection process, the current complex organisms were created. Due to the observational status of Charles Darwin, lack of evidence and non-religious perceptions the evolution theory through natural selection has received an array of criticisms.
Darwin’s evolution theory is based on observations thus lacks evidence regarding to the conclusion of this theory. Because natural selection has gone against religion, Christianity has criticized Darwin’s scientific theory of evolution. Darwin’s evolutionary theory is battling issues pertaining to lack of evidence. Mutations based assumptions have been regarded as educated hypothesis, however, according to records of fossils, more fossils have revealed that mutations have evolved over thousands of years. Philosophical texts have greatly discouraged observational theories. Because how the earth was created remains unknown, then, how can Darwin conclude that non-organic matter created organic matter? This simple species grew and developed into becoming complex species Darwin, C., & Glick, T. F. (2010). Darwin has failed to provide evidence about how this activity happened. A simple piece may not be able to become a complex organism thus it will remain a simple species.
Our surrounding environment keeps on changing every now and then because the atmosphere of the world has different variations. Organism should be in a position to adapt to all changes positively for them to be adaptive organisms. In the development of the first species, the power of the brain will also have to make a development as a species that thinks and has the tactics of survival Erik, D. and Ulis (2012). A developing species will require an environment that is constant for a good number of years. As weather changes gradually, they are able to adapt smoothly and survive with the environment as compared to environmental change that is rapid. Records of fossils provide adequate proof that adaptive change once existed. Evolution theory has no enough exhibitions to make it a fact. Records of fossils depict specimens that are complete instead of showing changes that have been gradually occurring over a period.
Evolution theory is one, which seeks to explain the origin of man and gives information that is valid on how the world could have come into being. Due to the presence of religion, then the world might trace its origin from a supreme being; let us say God. If God did not create the world in seven days, He definitely created an environment, which acted as a base for the evolution of organisms. We have been able to develop through learning and reasoning because God instilled the power of reasoning in us Best, L. J. (2008). Darwin’s theory to some extent, made sense, but it misses a very critical aspect; this is religion. He never fitted religion anywhere in his theory. The theory of Darwin may be termed as wrong because its hypothesis has been reconstructed intertwining science and religion.
The creation of the universe has had a number of theories behind it. Of the early philosophers, Darwin’s theory of natural selection has been the most popular so far making his validity tops the list. What denied Darwin’s theory to be a fact is the lack of enough evidence to support it thereby making it a mere assumption. Many philosophical scientists agreed with Darwin’s theory simply because it was very much observational. Religion, which is a major part and influence of the society, had a very great effect on scientists and philosophers’ hypothesis. This did not affect Darwin as he went on promoting his evolution theory against all odds.
The records of fossils do not exactly show the process, gradually and steadily how the organisms evolved dating back over a billion years. Fossils downgrade natural selection’s validity. Adaptive mechanism in organisms may be for the purpose of survival only. Religious aspect in the world usually has an impact on everyone Cantor, G. N., & Sweltz, M. (2006). The contradicting factor about science and religion is the creation of the earth by God from a molecule. The status of religion in the world will always deny Darwin’s theory to be accepted even though the natural selection theory in terms of education is the highest in our time.
Darwin never measured up to the special component included in natural selection. Loopholes noted in his theory indicated that Darwin was out to downplay the differences between man/human beings and other existing animals. This process applied only to humans thus caused challenges in his theory Darwin, C., & Glick, T. F. (2010). They came to the realization that animals and plants are made up of individuals who have varied physical forms from each other. It also came to their knowledge that nature chooses from the varieties of the existing traits and best fit the environment. If the only process that was occurring was natural selection, then at some point, we would have been identical, and each generation should have had a lesser variation Larson, B., & Brauer, F. (2009). However, Darwin’s discovery was met with an equal measure of opposition from other scholars. Adam Sedgwick, a Cambridge professor of Geology refuted Darwin’s’ finding claiming that his geological records were not only incomplete but that in an environment, domestic fusion are not of similar species. He also retaliated that Darwin’s choice of words in his discoveries indicated subjectivity; his theory was materialistic, lacked proper induction and dismisses final causes Hull, D. L. (2009).
Another biologist by the name Richard Owen opposed Darwin’s theory by saying that natural selection is an evolutionary idea that blurred the perception of species as important and crucial entities. In unison, scientific researchers agreed that despite Darwin’s massive success in defining and making known the evolution theory, his evolution theory failed short of providing sufficient explanations to two major questions including; how variation occurs in living organisms and its transmission through the off springs generation.
Darwin also failed to provide an approximate time that will be needed for evolution to take place on earth. These two shortcomings were linked to his insufficient knowledge on hereditary mechanisms that were perceived as crucial.
In conclusion, Darwin’s theory of evolution may have sparked criticisms and praise in equal measures but still remains relevant to our modern context. Peter, J. Richerson (2010) advices that, ‘The discussions on the application and implications of Darwinism can only be characterized as 'evo-babble'’. Darwin is being accredited to the agricultural sector transformation as his works focused on probable modern genetics. Scientific researchers have massively sited the importance of genetics in our current state of being. Physicians especially have to date valued Darwin’s evolution theory in regards to tracing the background of the medication processes in the medical industry.
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In total, Cambridge Digital Library (http://bit.ly/1y7q4e1) is releasing more than 12,000 hi-res images, alongside transcriptions and detailed notes as a result of an international collaboration with the Darwin Manuscript Project, based at the American Museum of Natural History. These papers chart the evolution of Darwin’s journey, from early theoretical reflections while on board HMS Beagle, to the publication of On the Origin of Species – 155 years ago today.
The launch of Darwin’s papers also marks the end of the first phase of funding for Cambridge’s Digital Library, launched to worldwide acclaim in 2011 with the publication of Isaac Newton’s scientific archive. Initial £1.5m funding for the Digital Library was provided by the Polonsky Foundation. Funding for the digitisation and transcription of the Origin papers was provided by the US National Endowment for the Humanities and National Science Foundation.
Cambridge University Library holds almost the entire collection of Darwin’s working scientific papers and the ones being released today are the most important for understanding the development of his evolutionary theory. They are being published simultaneously on the Cambridge Digital Library and Darwin Manuscripts Project websites, with a further release planned for June 2015, covering the notes and drafts of his eight post-Origin books.
None of the Darwin documents available from today have hitherto been digitised to the present high standard of full colour and high resolution, and many have never been transcribed or edited before now.
Professor David Kohn, Director of the Darwin Manuscripts Project, said: “These documents truly constitute the surviving seedbed of the Origin. In them, Darwin hammered out natural selection and the structure of concepts he used to support natural selection. It was here also that he developed his evolutionary narrative and where he experimented privately with arguments and strategies of presentation that he either rejected or that eventually saw the light of day with the Origin’s publication on November 24, 1859.”
The current release includes important documents such as the “Transmutation” and “Metaphysical” notebooks of the 1830s and the 1842 “Pencil Sketch” which sees Darwin’s first use of the term “natural selection”.
It was in Transmutation Notebook B, that Darwin first attempted to formulate a full theory of evolution and it was in Notebooks D and E that natural selection began to take form in late 1838 and early 1839. The further maturation of Darwin’s theory is found in the three experiment notebooks he began in the late 1830s and mid 1850s, and above all in a large mass of previously unpublished loose notes, primarily from the 1830s-1850s, which Darwin organised into portfolios that generally parallel the chapters of the Origin.
Also included will be images of nearly 300 of Darwin's letters with transcriptions and notes provided by the Darwin Correspondence Project, an Anglo-American research group also based in Cambridge University.
Associate Director, Dr Alison Pearn, said: “The information Darwin received, and the discussions he conducted in these letters played a crucial role in the development of his thinking. It is a really significant step that now for the first time they can be studied and searched in the context of the scientific papers of which they are an integral part.”
Also being published on the Digital Library today is a catalogue of the University Library’s Sanskrit Collections, detailing more than 1,600 manuscripts, 500 of which are fully digitised. Along with important works from the many religious traditions of South Asia, including Vedic, Hindu, Buddhist and Jainist texts – the collection also includes texts on “secular” topics, ranging from works of poetry and drama to treatises on philosophy, mathematics, grammar, astronomy, law, eroticism and medicine.
Anne Jarvis, Cambridge University Librarian, said: “With seed funding from the Polonsky Foundation, we launched the Cambridge Digital Library in 2011 with Isaac Newton’s papers, declaring our ambition of becoming a digital library for the world, opening up our collections to anyone, anywhere on the planet with access to the Internet. Now, after millions of visits to the Digital Library website, we bookend our first phase of development with the launch of Charles Darwin’s papers and our Sanskrit collection. These now sit alongside Newton’s scientific works and a wealth of other material, including the Board of Longitude papers and, most recently, our Siegfried Sassoon archive.”