How To Cite A Speech In An Essay

In Speech Citations:
To Cite or Not to Cite? Part 4 of 5

In Speech Citations

Outcome: You will understand and be able to use oral footnotes and in-text citations.

Approximate Completion Time: 45 minutes.

**To receive credit for completing this portion of the tutorial you must fill out the form on page 20.**

 

 

An Introduction to In-Speech Citations

Including a full list of citations on a Works Cited or Reference page is a good start to your speech, but it is not enough. In this section you will learn how to include citations within your speech and your presentation aids:

 

When to Cite.

Common Knowledge.

Oral Footnotes.

In-Text Citations.

Citing Charts, Tables, Images, Videos, etc.

When to Cite

There are only two types of information that do not require a citation:

  • Your own original thoughts and creations (pictures, music, surveys, videos).
  • Common knowledge.

Everything else requires a citation. When in doubt, cite.

 

Watch a brief video clip on using images and paraphrasing. (Note: for closed captioned version, select the Windows Media version of the clip from the drop-down menu underneath the video. Then click the icon on the right-hand side on the tool bar beneath the video to turn the captioning on.)

 

 

 

Common Knowledge

Common knowledge includes

            Facts that are well-known and not widely disputed, often historical.

 

Examples of well-known facts

Periodic Table of the Elements

  • The Declaration of Independence was signed in 1776.
  • Barack Obama is the 44th President of the United States.
  • Disney World is located south of Orlando, Florida.
  • Thanksgiving is celebrated on the 4th Thursday in November in the United States.
  • The chemical symbol for carbon is C.

 

(Image credit: pt. periodictable. Used under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.0 Generic license) 

Fig. 1: Torrone, Phillip. Periodictable. 19 Aug. 2005. Flickr. Web. 21 Aug. 2010.

 

Experts do not always agree on what else is included in common knowledge.

Karl Stolley and Allen Brizee of the Purdue Online Writing Lab, a widely used and highly regarded source on citation, suggest, "Generally speaking, you can regard something as common knowledge if you find the same information undocumented in at least five credible sources."

Many sources such as Laurie Kirszner and Stephen Mandell's Wadsworth Handbook include "familiar sayings and well-known quotations" (223)

Kirszner & Mandell also include "information most readers probably know" (223).

Information your readers (or listeners) already know may be context-dependent, i.e. it may vary based on which class you are in, who the other students are, which discipline (English, Math, Biology, etc.) is involved, etc.

 

When in doubt, cite. It is better to have some unnecessary citations than to neglect needed ones.

 

 

When to Cite Quiz

 

 

 

Oral Footnotes

Speakers use oral footnotes in a speech to establish the credibility of the information presented. The audience should be assured that the information comes from a reliable source which can be looked up later by an interested listener.

Examples:

  • In a September 2009 speech to Congress, President Obama stated, "It has now been nearly a century since Theodore Roosevelt first called for health care reform. And ever since, nearly every President and Congress, whether Democrat or Republican, has attempted to meet this challenge in some way."
  • According to a November 2009 Gallup Poll, 38% of Americans rate healthcare coverage as excellent or good.

In the examples above, "In a September 2009 speech to Congress, President Obama stated" and "According to a November 2009 Gallup Poll" are the oral footnotes. They give the listener a brief idea of the source of the information and introduce the quote and statistic given above. When composing an oral footnote include at least:

  • the person or organization who produced the information.

You may also want to include (and your professor may require):

  • the date of the information, e.g. 2009 in the examples above.
  • the credentials of the person being quoted, e.g. President of the United States.
  • the name of the publication or program in which the information appeared, e.g. The Wall Street Journal or The CBS Evening News.

Make sure you are clear on your professor's requirements before you give your speech.

Oral footnotes refer the listener to the full citation on the References or Works Cited page. So for the two examples given above, the speaker would include a full citation to President Obama's speech and to the Gallup Poll on the Works Cited page. MLA Works Cited Page for a speech using those two examples:

Works Cited

Jones, Jeffrey M. "Greater Optimism about U.S. Health System Coverage, Costs."  Gallup. 19 Nov. 2009. 

                Web. 13 July 2010.

Obama, Barack. "Remarks by the President to a Joint Session of Congress on Health Care." U.S. Capitol,

                Washington, DC.  9 Sept. 2009. Web. 13 July 2010.

 

Oral Footnotes Continued

It is common for newspaper articles, books, web sites and other sources to quote other sources in the course of an article. Be sure to quote the original source  (person or organization) of the information in your oral footnote and then the article in which you found that information on your works cited page.

For example, in a March 24, 2010 article in the Orlando Sentinel, columnist Mike Thomas quoted Bill McCollum: "The U.S. Constitution grants no authority to Congress to compel citizens to purchase health insurance when those citizens choose not to enter the health-care market" (B1).

If you used this quotation from Bill McCollum in a speech you would say something like this:  According to Bill McCollum, Attorney General for the State of Florida, "The U.S. Constitution grants no authority to Congress to compel citizens to purchase health insurance when those citizens choose not to enter the health-care market."

Your Works Cited page would include the full citation for the newspaper article that included this quote:

Thomas, Mike. "Health Care: Can It Stand Up to the Challenges?" Orlando Sentinel 24 Mar. 2010: B1.

                Newsbank. Web. 13 July 2010.

Notice that the full citation does not mention Bill McCollum; it is not necessary to go back and find the original source for Mike Thomas' quotation and include it on your Works Cited Page. But it is necessary to mention Bill McCollum as the sources of the words in your oral footnote.

Incorrect Examples:

According to the Orlando Sentinel, "The U.S. Constitution grants no authority to Congress to compel citizens to purchase health insurance when those citizens choose not to enter the health-care market."

According to Mike Thomas, "The U.S. Constitution grants no authority to Congress to compel citizens to purchase health insurance when those citizens choose not to enter the health-care market."

These are not the words of Mike Thomas nor the official position of the Orlando Sentinel.

 

Oral Footnotes -- Test Your Knowledge

Read the article "A Savings Mirage on Health Care." You will need your borrower ID number from the back of your Valencia ID (either your VID or a longer number beginning with 259). Your PIN should be the last four digits of your VID.

Click on Quiz Group below to quiz yourself on your knowledge of oral footnotes.

 

 

 

 

 

In-Text Citations

In-text citations are the written equivalent of oral footnotes, giving the reader a brief idea of the source of information. In-text citations are sometimes called parenthetical citations because they appear in parenthesis in the body of the text in both the APA and MLA styles. Although more commonly used in papers, in-text citations are sometimes used in speech classes and incorporated into

  • outlines,
  • speaker notes,
  • PowerPoint presentations.

Check with your instructor to determine his or her preferences on including in-text citations in any of the above.

 

In-Text Citation Examples

In the APA format, an in-text citation includes

  • the author's last name
  • date (use n.d. if no date is available),
  • page number, if available.

Example: "If government insures 30 million or more Americans, health spending will rise" (Samuelson, 2009, p. A21).

 

For MLA style, include

  • the author's last name.
  • the page number, if given.

Example: "If government insures 30 million or more Americans, health spending will rise" (Samuelson A21).

 

(Photo credit: TalkMediaNews. Conservative Activists Hold a Second 'House Call.' Used under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic license.)

Fig. 2: Talk Radio News Service. Conservative Activists Hold a Second 'House Call.' 7 Nov. 2009. Flickr. Web. 21 Aug. 2010.

 

In-Text Citations Examples for Web Sources and No Author Given

For electronic resources that have no page numbers omit the page number. For APA, substitute a paragraph number.

APA: "If a government's first priority is to protect the lives of its people, then ringfencing health spending while cutting other budgets and trying to drive down the cost of medicines—policies being pursued in Europe—seem sensible options" (Kelland, 2010, para. 2).

 

MLA: "If a government's first priority is to protect the lives of its people, then ringfencing health spending while cutting other budgets and trying to drive down the cost of medicines—policies being pursued in Europe—seem sensible options" (Kelland).

 

(Photo credit: Speaker Pelosi. Molly Secours. Used under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic license.) 

Fig. 3: Pelosi, Nancy. Molly Secours. 22 July 2009. Flickr. Web. 21 Aug. 2010.

 

If a particular work has no author use a shortened version of the title instead of the author's last name.

APA: "The Affordable Care Act expands initiatives to increase racial and ethnic diversity in the health care professions." ("Health Disparities," 2010).

MLA: "The Affordable Care Act expands initiatives to increase racial and ethnic diversity in the health care professions." ("Health Disparities").

 

Full MLA citations for the in-text citation examples given:

"Health Disparities and the Affordable Care Act." HealthCare.gov. U.S. Department of Health and Human

                Services. 2010. Web. 13 July 2010.

Kelland, Kate. "Analysis: Health and Austerity: When Budget Cuts Cost Lives." Reuters. 4 July 2010. Web.

                13 July 2010.

Samuelson, Robert. "A Savings Mirage on Health Care." Washington Post 14 Dec. 2009: A21. Newsbank. Web. 13 July 2010.

 

 

In-Text Citation Quiz

Connect to the following story from the Orlando Sentinel and decide how you would do an MLA in-text citation for it:

Orlando Sentinel story

 

 

 

 

 

Citing Charts, Tables, Images, Videos, etc.

The MLA and APA publication manuals are designed for published written work and do not give explicit guidelines for how to cite audiovisual materials used as a visual aid while speaking, so here are some suggested guidelines:

If your chart, table, audio file, or video file

  • provides data that you are using to support your point.
  • was not created by you from your own data.

cite it within your speech and provide a full citation on your Works Cited or References page.

 

To cite within your speech, insert a line underneath the chart, table, audio or video file including at least

  • Source:
  • the author or creator (This might be an organization such as the U.S. Census Bureau in the example given on the next page.)

Including at least this much information will lead your audience to the correct entry on your works cited page.

 

Also consider including additional information if it will help your audience understand the context, such as:

  • the title (For example, if you were including a video you found on YouTube, it might be helpful for your audience to know the name of it.)
  • the date (If this information is not given elsewhere, consider including it, especially for data tables and graphs, cases in which the date is important.)
  • the organization or web site (This would be helpful in such cases as the YouTube video; your audience might like to know that you found the video on YouTube.)

Example

Here is an example of a graph created from data on a table in the U.S. Census Bureau's Statistical Abstract.

Registered and Actual Voters in the 2008 Presidential Election

 Source: U.S. Census Bureau.

If including more than one graph from the same source, e.g. U.S. Census Bureau, give your audience enough information to distinguish the two graphs on your Works Cited or References page. In this example, putting the name of the publication and the table number, as below, should be enough to distinguish this graph from other U.S. Census Bureau graphs:

Source: U.S. Census Bureau. 2011 Statistical Abstract. Table 416. "Voting-Age Population--Reported Registration and Voting by Selected Characteristics: 1996 to 2008."

 

To create a full citation for this table to put on your Works Cited or References page, cite it as you would any other web page.

APA:

U.S. Census Bureau. (2011). Table 416. Voting-age population--Reported registration and voting

by selected characteristics: 1996 to 2008. Retrieved from

http://www.census.gov/compendia/statab/2011/tables/11s0416.pdf

MLA:

U.S. Census Bureau. "Table 416. Voting-Age Population--Reported Registration and Voting by

            Selected Characteristics: 1996 to 2008." 2011 Statistical Abstract. U.S. Census Bureau,

2011. Web. 24 Jan. 2011.

 

 

Citing Charts, Graphs, Audio and Video Quiz

Connect to the following article from the Gallup Poll and look at the graph labeled, "American Adults, by Weight Category."

 

Gallup Poll article

 

Why URLs are Not Enough

Including a URL in a citation, whether a full citation on a Works Cited or References page or on your visual aid, can be helpful to your audience in locating a web resource (and it is required for an APA full citation), but by itself it is not enough for three reasons:

  • URLs are easy to mistype. One character off, and your audience may never find it if you have given no other information.
  • Web sites often reorganize their files. The same page may still be there but in a different location.
  • It does not give credit to the individual who created the information.

If you have included a full citation for web resources used, your audience has a good chance of finding them even if the URLs have changed. Simply typing the author and title into a search engine will probably be enough to find it.

 

Illustrations 

Sometimes you may use an image purely as an illustration, e.g.

  • a photograph of the person you are discussing.
  • clip art of medicine bottles in a presentation on prescription drugs.

Such illustrations do not include information important to the point you are making and need not be included as full citations on your Works Cited or References page.

When considering whether to include brief citations on your visual aid, remember the general principle of giving credit to others for their work but also consult your professor for his or her preferences.

Keep in mind that if you were giving other types of speeches, e.g.

  • a sales presentation.
  • a presentation to your boss and colleagues.
  • a conference presentation.
  • an interview presentation, etc.,

the rules may be different than for a college speech class. In those cases, consider professional standards in your field.

If you do include citations on your visual aid, follow the guidelines previously given for graphs, charts, audio and video files.

Example:

Source: NASA. "Free Floating (1984)."

 

A Word on Copyright

Note that plagiarism and copyright are two separate issues. Citing a photo, video or other media file does not mean that you have used the material legally.

Generally using these types of materials:

  • once.
  • in class.
  • for a student presentation.

is allowed under fair use guidelines. See U.S. Copyright Office - Fair Use and Stanford Copyright and Fair Use for more information.

However, if you intend to

  • make your presentation available over the Internet,
  • to present it to an audience more than once,
  • to give a speech for which you will be paid,
  • or to give a speech to the general public,

then consider the copyright laws for including photographs, videos, etc. Seek permission and provide appropriate legal notices in the body of your presentation. In some cases, a royalty must be paid in order to use others' creations. In other cases, royalty-free work is available for use under certain conditions.

The photo credit given below is an appropriate one for a Creative Commons image being reproduced on a web site for educational purposes.

(Photo credit: Luke Redmond.Machu Picchu (The Lost City of the Incas).Used under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.0 Generic license.)

  

 

 

Works Cited

Works Cited

 

"Health Disparities and the Affordable Care Act." HealthCare.gov. U.S. Department of Health and Human

 Services. 2010. Web. 13 July 2010.

Information Literacy: the Perils of Online Research. Dir. Amy S. Weber and Ryan Demetrak.

Cambridge Educational, 2006. Films on Demand. Web. 13 July 2010.

Jones, Jeffrey M. "Greater Optimism about U.S. Health System Coverage, Costs."  Gallup. 19 Nov. 2009. 

Web. 13 July 2010.

Kelland, Kate. "Analysis: Health and Austerity: When Budget Cuts Cost Lives." Reuters. 4 July 2010. Web.

13 July 2010.

Kirszner, Laurie G. and Stephen R. Mandell. TheWadsworthHandbook. 9th ed.Boston: Wadsworth, 2011.

Obama, Barack. "Remarks by the President to a Joint Session of Congress on Health Care." U.S. Capitol,

Washington, DC.  9 Sept. 2009. Web. 13 July 2010.

Samuelson, Robert. "A Savings Mirage on Health Care." Washington Post 14 Dec. 2009: A21. Newsbank. Web. 13 July 2010.

Stolley, Karl and Allen Brizee. "Is it Plagiarism Yet?" Purdue Online Writing Lab. Purdue U., 21 April 2010.

Web.13 Aug. 2010.

Thomas, Mike. "Health Care: Can It Stand Up to the Challenges?" Orlando Sentinel 24 Mar. 2010: B1.

 Newsbank. Web. 13 July 2010.

 

 

Print Your Score

 

 

 

 

MLA Works Cited: Other Common Sources

Summary:

MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (8th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.

Contributors: Tony Russell, Allen Brizee, Elizabeth Angeli, Russell Keck, Joshua M. Paiz, Michelle Campbell, Rodrigo RodrĂ­guez-Fuentes, Daniel P. Kenzie, Susan Wegener, Maryam Ghafoor, Purdue OWL Staff
Last Edited: 2018-03-07 01:12:03

Several sources have multiple means for citation, especially those that appear in varied formats: films, DVDs, T.V shows, music, published and unpublished interviews, interviews over e-mail; published and unpublished conference proceedings. The following section groups these sorts of citations as well as others not covered in the print, periodical, and electronic sources sections.

Use the following format for all sources:

Author. Title. Title of container (self contained if book), Other contributors (translators or editors), Version (edition), Number (vol. and/or no.), Publisher, Publication Date, Location (pages, paragraphs URL or DOI). 2nd container’s title, Other contributors, Version, Number, Publisher, Publication date, Location, Date of Access (if applicable).

An Interview

Interviews typically fall into two categories: print or broadcast published and unpublished (personal) interviews, although interviews may also appear in other, similar formats such as in e-mail format or as a Web document.

Personal Interviews

Personal interviews refer to those interviews that you conduct yourself. List the interview by the name of the interviewee. Include the descriptor Personal interview and the date of the interview.

Smith, Jane. Personal interview. 19 May 2014.

Published Interviews (Print or Broadcast)

List the interview by the full name of the interviewee. If the name of the interview is part of a larger work like a book, a television program, or a film series, place the title of the interview in quotation marks. Place the title of the larger work in italics. If the interview appears as an independent title, italicize it. For books, include the author or editor name after the book title.

Note: If the interview from which you quote does not feature a title, add the descriptor, Interview by (unformatted) after the interviewee’s name and before the interviewer’s name.

Gaitskill, Mary. Interview with Charles Bock. Mississippi Review, vol. 27, no. 3, 1999, pp. 129-50.

Amis, Kingsley. “Mimic and Moralist.” Interviews with Britain’s Angry Young Men, By Dale Salwak, Borgo P, 1984.

Online-only Published Interviews

List the interview by the name of the interviewee. If the interview has a title, place it in quotation marks. Cite the remainder of the entry as you would other exclusive web content. Place the name of the website in italics, give the publisher name (or sponsor), the publication date, and the URL.  

Note: If the interview from which you quote does not feature a title, add the descriptor Interview by (unformatted) after the interviewee’s name and before the interviewer’s name.

Zinkievich, Craig. Interview by Gareth Von Kallenbach. Skewed & Reviewed, 27 Apr. 2009, www.arcgames.com/en/games/star-trek-online/news/detail/1056940-skewed-%2526-reviewed-interviews-craig. Accessed 15 May. 2009.

Speeches, Lectures, or Other Oral Presentations (including Conference Presentations)

Provide the speaker’s name. Then, give the title of the speech (if any) in quotation marks. Follow with the title of the particular conference or meeting and then the name of the organization. Name the venue and its city (if the name of the city is not listed in the venue’s name). Use the descriptor that appropriately expresses the type of presentation (e.g., Address, Lecture, Reading, Keynote Speech, Guest Lecture, Conference Presentation).

Stein, Bob. “Reading and Writing in the Digital Era.” Discovering Digital Dimensions, Computers and Writing Conference, 23 May 2003, Union Club Hotel, West Lafayette, IN. Keynote Address.

Published Conference Proceedings

Cite published conference proceedings like a book. If the date and location of the conference are not part of the published title, add this information after the published proceedings title.

Last Name, First Name, editor. Conference Title that Includes Conference Date and Location, Publisher, Date of Publication.

Last Name, First Name, editor. Conference Title that Does Not Include Conference Date and Location, Conference Date, Conference Location, Publisher, Date of Publication.

To cite a presentation from a published conference proceedings, begin with the presenter’s name. Place the name of the presentation in quotation marks. Follow with publication information for the conference proceedings.

Last Name, First Name. “Conference Paper Title.” Conference Title that Includes Conference Date and Location, edited by Conference Editor(s), Publisher, Date of Publication. 

A Painting, Sculpture, or Photograph

Provide the artist's name, the title of the artwork in italics, the date of composition, and the medium of the piece. Finally, provide the name of the institution that houses the artwork followed by the location of the institution (if the location is not listed in the name of the institution, e.g. The Art Institute of Chicago).

Goya, Francisco. The Family of Charles IV. 1800, oil on canvas, Museo del Prado, Madrid.

For photographic reproductions of artwork (e.g. images of artwork in a book), treat the book or website as a container. Remember that for a second container, the title is listed first, before the contributors.  Cite the bibliographic information as above followed by the information for the source in which the photograph appears, including page or reference numbers (plate, figure, etc.).

Goya, Francisco. The Family of Charles IV. 1800, Museo del Prado, Madrid. Gardener's Art Through the Ages, 10th ed., by Richard G. Tansey and Fred S. Kleiner, Harcourt Brace, p. 939.

A Song or Album

Music can be cited multiple ways. Mainly, this depends on the container that you accessed the music from. Generally, citations begin with the artist name. They might also be listed by composers or performers. Otherwise, list composer and performer information after the album title. Put individual song titles in quotation marks. Album names are italicized. Provide the name of the recording manufacturer followed by the publication date.

If information such as record label or name of album is unavailable from your source, do not list that information.

Spotify

Rae Morris. “Skin.” Cold, Atlantic Records, 2014. Spotify, open.spotify.com/track/0OPES3Tw5r86O6fudK8gxi.

Online Album

Beyoncé. “Pray You Catch Me.” Lemonade, Parkwood Entertainment, 2016, www.beyonce.com/album/lemonade-visual-album/.

CD

Nirvana. "Smells Like Teen Spirit." Nevermind, Geffen, 1991.

Films or Movies

List films by their title. Include the name of the director, the film studio or distributor, and the release year. If relevant, list performer names after the director's name.

The Usual Suspects. Directed by Bryan Singer, performances by Kevin Spacey, Gabriel Byrne, Chazz Palminteri, Stephen Baldwin, and Benecio del Toro, Polygram, 1995.

To emphasize specific performers or directors, begin the citation with the name of the desired performer or director, followed by the appropriate title for that person.

Lucas, George, director. Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope. Twentieth Century Fox, 1977.

Television Shows

Recorded Television Episodes

Cite recorded television episodes like films (see above). Begin with the episode name in quotation marks. Follow with the series name in italics. When the title of the collection of recordings is different than the original series (e.g., the show Friends is in DVD release under the title Friends: The Complete Sixth Season), list the title that would help researchers to locate the recording. Give the distributor name followed by the date of distribution.

"The One Where Chandler Can't Cry." Friends: The Complete Sixth Season, written by Andrew Reich and Ted Cohen, directed by Kevin Bright, Warner Brothers, 2004.

Broadcast TV or Radio Program

Begin with the title of the episode in quotation marks. Provide the name of the series or program in italics. Also include the network name, call letters of the station followed by the date of broadcast and city.

"The Blessing Way." The X-Files. Fox, WXIA, Atlanta, 19 Jul. 1998.

Netflix, Hulu, Google Play

Generally, when citing a specific episode, follow the format below.

“94 Meetings.” Parks and Recreation, season 2, episode 21, NBC, 29 Apr. 2010. Netflix, www.netflix.com/watch/70152031.

An Entire TV Series

When citing the entire series of a TV show, use the following format.

Daniels, Greg and Michael Schur, creators. Parks and Recreation. Deedle-Dee Productions and Universal Media Studios, 2015.

A Specific Performance or Aspect of a TV Show

If you want to emphasize a particular aspect of the show, include that particular information. For instance, if you are writing about a specific character during a certain episode, include the performer’s name as well as the creator’s.

“94 Meetings.” Parks and Recreation, created by Greg Daniels and Michael Schur, performance by Amy Poehler, season 2, episode 21, Deedle-Dee Productions and Universal Media Studios, 2010.

If you wish to emphasize a particular character throughout the show’s run time, follow this format.

Poehler, Amy, performer. Parks and Recreation. Deedle-Dee Productions and Universal Media Studios, 2009-2015.

Podcasts

“Best of Not My Job Musicians.” Wait Wait…Don’t Tell Me! from NPR, 4 June 2016, http://www.npr.org/podcasts/344098539/wait-wait-don-t-tell-me.

Spoken-Word Albums such as Comedy Albums

Treat spoken-word albums the same as musical albums.

Hedberg, Mitch. Strategic Grill Locations. Comedy Central, 2003.

Digital Files (PDFs, MP3s, JPEGs)

Determine the type of work to cite (e.g., article, image, sound recording) and cite appropriately. End the entry with the name of the digital format (e.g., PDF, JPEG file, Microsoft Word file, MP3). If the work does not follow traditional parameters for citation, give the author’s name, the name of the work, the date of creation, and the location.

Beethoven, Ludwig van. Moonlight Sonata. Crownstar, 2006.

Smith, George. “Pax Americana: Strife in a Time of Peace.” 2005. Microsoft Word file.

Council of Writing Program Administrators, National Council of Teachers of English, and National Writing Project. Framework for Success in Postsecondary Writing. CWPA, NCTE, and NWP, 2011, wpacouncil.org/files/framework-for-success-postsecondary-writing.pdf.

Bentley, Phyllis. “Yorkshire and the Novelist.” The Kenyon Review, vol. 30, no. 4, 1968, pp. 509-22. JSTOR, www.jstor.org.iii/stable/4334841.

0 thoughts on “How To Cite A Speech In An Essay”

    -->

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *