Book Of Prime Entry Assignment Discovery

Features and Technologies Templates

Features and Technologies templates are templates that are based on device configuration and that focus on specific features or technologies in a device’s configuration.

When you add a device to Prime Infrastructure, Prime Infrastructure gathers the device configuration for the model you added. Prime Infrastructure does not support every configurable option for all device types. If Prime Infrastructure does not have a Features and Technologies template for the specific feature or parameter that you want to configure, create a CLI template.

Features and Technologies templates simplify the deployment of configuration changes. For example, you can create an SNMP Features and Technologies template and then quickly apply it to devices you specify. You can also add this SNMP template to a composite template. Then later, when you update the SNMP template, the composite template in which the SNMP template is contained automatically has your latest changes.

To view the list of Features and Technologies templates, choose Configuration > Templates > Features & Technologies > Features and Technologies.

Related Topics

Creating Features and Technologies Templates

To create Features and Templates, follow these steps:


Step 1 Choose Configuration > Templates > Features and Technologies .

Step 2 In the Features and Technologies menu on the left, choose a template type to create.

Step 3 Complete the fields for that template.

If you are creating a feature template that applies only to a particular device type, the Device Type field lists only the applicable device type, and you cannot change the selection. Specifying a device type helps you to prevent a mismatch; that is, you cannot create a configuration and apply the configuration to a wrong device.

Step 4 Click Save as New Template. After you save the template, control gets redirected to the saved template from where you can deploy it to your devices.

Step 5 To verify the status of a template deployment, choose Administration > Dashboard > Jobs Dashboard .

To modify the deployment parameters for any subsequent configuration template deployments, select a configuration job, then click Edit Schedule .

 

Related Topics

Deployment Flow for Configuration Templates Using the Wizard


Note This deployment flow is not applicable for Controller based templates. For information on how to deploy Controller based templates, see the Deploying Templates section.


Step 1 After you create a configuration template, click Deploy. The Deployment wizard page opens.

Step 2 Select the devices on which you want to deploy the template, then click Next to choose the input values.

Step 3 In the Input Values tab, you can toggle between Form and CLI view.

Step 4 Enter all the mandatory fields for each template, then click Apply

Step 5 After entering the necessary configuration values, click Next or click CLI to confirm the device and template configuration values.

Step 6 Schedule the deployment job using Schedule Deployment tab, if required:

  • Create a meaningful deployment job name, then specify whether to run the now or in the future.
  • You can also schedule the job to run periodically on hourly, daily, weekly, monthly or yearly basis.
  • You can configure the following job options:

Failure Policy

– Ignore failure and continue—This is the default option. The devices are randomly picked up for template deployment. If the job fails on a device, the job skips the device and continues with the remaining devices. The Job results show success/failure information for all the selected devices.

– Stop on failure—If the job fails to execute on a device, the job is stopped. The job results are updated only for the devices on which the job was executed successfully and for other devices which didn’t undergo template deployment, “Not Attempted” message is shown. The order of devices chosen for deployment will be same as the device order in Value assignment pane.

– Copy Running Config to Startup—If the template deployment job succeeds, the running configuration of the device is copied to startup configuration.

– Archive Config after deploy—Creates a new config archive job and archives the configuration of devices after successfully deploying the template.

Step 7 Click Next to view the job deployment summary.

Step 8 On the Deployment Summary tab, you will see the CLI view for each of the device.

Step 9 Click Finish to deploy the template.

Click Job Status in the pop-up dialog box to launch the Job Dashboard to view the status of the job.

 

Related Topics

CLI Templates

CLI templates are a set of re-usable device configuration commands with the ability to parameterize select elements of the configuration as well as add control logic statements. This template is used to generate a device deployable configuration by replacing the parameterized elements (variables) with actual values and evaluating the control logic statements.

The following are the list of CLI templates:

  • System Templates - CLI—You cannot delete a System Template, but you can modify and save it as a new template. In this page, you can import or export any template. You cannot import a template under the system defined folder. The Undeploy button is disabled in this page since the CLI templates do not have an option undeploy them.
  • CLI—CLI is a set of re-usable device configuration commands with the ability to parameterize select elements of the configuration as well as add control logic statements. This template is used to generate a device deployable configuration by replacing the parameterized elements (variables) with actual values and evaluating the control logic statements.

To view the list of system CLI templates, choose Configuration > Templates > Features and Technologies > CLI Templates.

Related Topics

Prerequisites for Creating CLI Templates

Before you create a CLI template, you must:

  • Have expert knowledge and understanding of the CLI and be able to write the CLI in Apache VTL.
  • Understand to what devices the CLI you create can be applied.
  • Understand the data types supported by Prime Infrastructure.
  • Understand and be able to manually label configurations in the template.

Related Topics

Creating CLI Configuration Templates

Use templates to define device parameters and settings, which you can later to a specified number of devices based on device type.

Before You Begin

Make sure that you have satisfied the prerequisites (see Prerequisites for Creating CLI Templates).


Step 1 Choose Configuration > Templates > Features and Technologies .

Step 2 Expand the CLI Templates folder, then click CLI.

Step 3 Complete the required fields in the Template Basic section.

Step 4 In the Template Detail section, configure the following:

  • Click the Add Variable tab. This allows you to specify a variable for which you will define a value when you apply the template. Click Add Row and enter the parameters for the new variable, then click Save .

or

Search for the global variable in the Add Global Variable search box by entering the first few characters of the global variable name and choose the desired global variable you want to apply

  • Enter the CLI information. In the CLI tab, you must enter code using Apache VTL.
  • (Optional) To change the variables, click the Manage Variables icon, and then make your changes. Click Form View (a read-only view) to view the variables.

Step 5 Click Save As New Template , specify the folder in which you want to save the template, then click Save .

To duplicate a CLI template, expand the System Templates - CLI , hover your mouse cursor over the quick view picker icon next to CLI, and then click Duplicate .

 

Related Topics

Variables and Data Types

You can use variables as placeholders to store values. The variables have names and data types. Table 21-1 lists data types that you can configure in the Manage Variables page.

 

Data Type

Description

String

Enables you to create a text box for CLI templates. To specify a validation expression and a default value, expand the row and configure the Default Value and Validation Expression fields.

Integer

Enables you to create a text box that accepts only numeric value. If you want to specify a range for the integer, expand the row and configure the Range From and To fields. To specify a validation expression and a default value, expand the row and configure the Default Value and Validation Expression fields.

DB

Enables you to specify a database type.

DB_Dropdown

Enables you to list the device specific values based on DB Query.

IPv4 Address

Enables you to create a text box that accepts only IPv4 addresses for CLI templates. To specify a validation expression and a default value, expand the row and configure the Default Value and Validation Expression fields.

Drop-down

Enables you to create a list for CLI templates. To specify a validation expression and a default value, expand the row and configure the Default Value field (with a comma-separated value for multiple lists which appears in the UI).

Check box

Enables you to create a check box for CLI templates. To specify a validation expression and a default value, expand the row and configure the Default Value field.

Radio Button

Enables you to create a radio button for CLI templates. To specify a validation expression and a default value, expand the row and configure the Default Value field.

Text Area

Enables you to create a text area which allows multiline values for CLI templates. To specify a validation expression and a default value, expand the row and configure the Default Value and Validation Expression fields.

Managing Database Variables in CLI Templates

You can use database (DB) variables for the following reasons:

  • DB variables are one of the data types in CLI templates. You can use the DB variables to generate device-specific commands.
  • DB variables are predefined variables. To view the list of predefined DB variables, see the CLITemplateDbVariablesQuery.properties file in the following folder
    /opt/CSCOlumos/conf/ifm/template/inventoryTagsInTemplate.
  • For example, SysObjectID, IPAddress, ProductSeries, ImageVersion are DB variables.When a device is added to Prime Infrastructure , the complete details of the device is collected in the DB variables. That is, the OID of the devices is collected in SysObjeectID, product series in ProductSeries, image versions of the device in ImageVersion, and so on.
  • Using the data collected by the DB variables, accurate commands can be generated to the device.
  • You can select the DB variable in the Type field (using the Managed Variables page). Expand the name field and fill in the default value field with any of the DB variables which you want to use.
  • When a device is discovered and added to Prime Infrastructure, you can use the database values that were gathered during the inventory collection to create CLI templates.

For example, if you want to create a CLI template to shut down all interfaces in a branch, create a CLI template that contains the following commands:

$interfaceNameList

 

where $interfaceNameList is the database variable type whose value will be retrieved from the database. $interfaceNameList has a default value of IntfName. You need to create the interfaceNameList variable as DB data type (using the managed variable dialog box) and add set the default to IntfName. If you have not specified a default value, you can specify it when you apply the CLI template.

To populate interfaceNameList with the value from the database, you must create a properties file to capture the query string and save it in the /opt/CSCOlumos/conf/ifm/template/inventoryTagsInTemplate folder.

To view the predefined DB variables go to the following path:
cd /opt/CSCOlumos/conf/ifm/template/inventoryTagsInTemplate

After you create and apply the CLI template and the property file, the following CLI is configured on the devices. This output assumes that the device has two interfaces (Gigabitethernet0/1 and Gigabitethernet0/0):


Note While it is possible to create a customized query using Enterprise JavaBeans Query Language (EJB QL), only advanced developers should attempt this. We recommend you use the variables defined in the CLITemplateDbVariablesQuery.properties file only.

Using Validation Expression

The values that you define in the Validation Expression are validated with the associated component value. For example, if you enter a default value and a validation expression value in the design flow, this will be validated during the design flow. That is, if the default value does not match with the entered value in the validation expression, you will encounter a get error at the design flow.


Note The validation expression value works only for the string data type field.

Example:

Choose Configuration > Features and Technologies > CLI Templates > CLI > Manage Variables > Add Row. Choose string data type and then expand the row and configure the regular expression, which will not allow a space in that text box.

Enter the following expression in the validating expression field.

^[\S]+$

 

Default value (optional)—ncs

The value should match with regular expression in the validation expression field.)

 

Result:

Save the template, and then select a device. Try to enter a space in the text field. You will encounter a regular expression error.

Adding Multi-line Commands

To enter multi-line commands in the CLI Content area, use the following syntax:

<MLTCMD>First Line of Multiline Command

Second Line of Multiline Command

......

......

Last Line of Multiline Command</MLTCMD>

 

where:

  • <MLTCMD> and </MLTCMD> tags are case-sensitive and must be entered as uppercase.
  • The multi-line commands must be inserted between the <MLTCMD> and </MLTCMD> tags.
  • Do not start this tag with a space.
  • Do not use <MLTCMD> and </MLTCMD> in a single line.

Example 1:

<MLTCMD>banner motd ~ Welcome to

Cisco. You are using

Multi-line commands.

~</MLTCMD>

 

Example 2:

<MLTCMD>banner motd ~ ${message}

~</MLTCMD>

 

where message is a multi-line input variable.

Restrictions for Using Multi-line Banner Commands

You can use “ banner file xyz ”' format as shown in the following example:

#conf t

Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with Ctrl-Z.

(config)#parameter-map type webauth global

(config-params-parameter-map)# type webauth

(config-params-parameter-map)#banner file tftp://192.168.0.0/banner.txt

(config-params-parameter-map)#^Z

#more tftp://192.168.0.0/banner.txt

Disclaimer:

Usage of this wireless network is restricted to authorized users only.

Unauthorized access is strictly forbidden.

All accesses are logged and can be monitored.

#

Adding Enable Mode Commands

Use this syntax to add enable mode commands to your CLI templates:

#MODE_ENABLE

<<commands >>

#MODE_END_ENABLE

Adding Interactive Commands

An interactive command contains the input that must be entered following the execution of a command.

To enter an interactive command in the CLI Content area, use the following syntax:

CLI Command<IQ>interactive question 1<R>command response 1 <IQ>interactive question 2<R>command response 2

 

where <IQ> and <R> tag are case-sensitive and must be entered as uppercase.

For example:

#INTERACTIVE

crypto key generate rsa general-keys <IQ>yes/no<R> no

#ENDS_INTERACTIVE

Combining Interactive Enable Mode Commands

Use this syntax to combine interactive Enable Mode commands:

#MODE_ENABLE

#INTERACTIVE

commands<IQ>interactive question<R>response

#ENDS_INTERACTIVE

#MODE_END_ENABLE

 

For example:

#MODE_ENABLE

#INTERACTIVE

mkdir <IQ>Create directory<R>xyz

#ENDS_INTERACTIVE

#MODE_END_ENABLE

Adding Interactive Multiline Commands

This is an example of an interactive command that contains multiple lines:

#INTERACTIVE

macro name EgressQoS<IQ>Enter macro<R><MLTCMD>mls qos trust dscp

wrr-queue queue-limit 10 25 10 10 10 10 10

wrr-queue bandwidth 1 25 4 10 10 10 10

priority-queue queue-limit 15

wrr-queue random-detect 1

wrr-queue random-detect 2

wrr-queue random-detect 3

wrr-queue random-detect 4

wrr-queue random-detect 5

wrr-queue random-detect 6

wrr-queue random-detect 7

wrr-queue random-detect max-threshold 1 100 100 100 100

wrr-queue random-detect min-threshold 1 80 100 100 100

wrr-queue random-detect max-threshold 2 100 100 100 100

wrr-queue random-detect min-threshold 2 80 100 100 100

wrr-queue random-detect max-threshold 3 80 90 100 100

wrr-queue random-detect min-threshold 3 70 80 90 100

wrr-queue random-detect min-threshold 4 70 80 90 100

wrr-queue random-detect max-threshold 4 80 90 100 100

wrr-queue random-detect min-threshold 5 70 80 90 100

wrr-queue random-detect max-threshold 5 80 90 100 100

wrr-queue random-detect min-threshold 6 70 80 90 100

wrr-queue random-detect max-threshold 6 80 90 100 100

wrr-queue random-detect min-threshold 7 60 70 80 90

wrr-queue random-detect max-threshold 7 70 80 90 100

@</MLTCMD>

#ENDS_INTERACTIVE

Creating CLI Configuration Templates from Copied Code

A quick way to create CLI configuration templates is to copy code from a command line configuration session, CLI script, or other stored set of configuration commands. Prime Infrastructure lets you turn all the CLI parameters in the copied CLI into template variables.

To create a CLI template variable from copied code:


Step 1 Choose Configuration > Templates > Features and Technologies .

Step 2 Expand the CLI Template folder, then click CLI.

Step 3 In the CLI template, paste the copied code into the CLI Content field.

Step 4 Select the text that is to be the variable name and click Manage Variables (the icon above the CLI Content field).

You can use this same procedure to edit an existing variable created from copied code.

Step 5 Fill out the required information, then click Save > Add .

Step 6 To view the new variable, click Form View .

 

Related Topics

Exporting a Template

If you have any CLI or Composite templates in any other Prime Infrastructure server, you can export them as an XML file and import them into your current Prime Infrastructure server.


Step 1 Choose Configuration > Templates > Features and Technologies .

Step 2 Expand the CLI Template or Composite Template folder.

Step 3 Click System Templates - CLI or System Templates - Composite folder.

Step 4 Select the template(s) that you want to export.

Step 5 Click the Export icon at the top right of the CLI template page.

 

Related Topics

Importing a CLI Configuration Template


Step 1 Choose Configuration > Templates > Features and Technologies .

Step 2 Expand the CLI Template folder, then hover your mouse cursor over the quick view picker icon next to CLI.

Step 3 Click Show All Templates .

Step 4 Click the Import icon at the top right of the CLI template page.

Step 5 Click Select Templates to navigate to your file, then click OK .

 

Related Topics

Exporting CLI Variables

You can export the CLI variables into a CSV file while deploying a CLI configuration template. You can use the CSV file to make necessary changes in the variable configuration and import it into Prime Infrastructure at a later time.


Step 1 Choose Configuration > Templates > Features and Technologies > CLI Templates .

Step 2 Click System Templates - CLI.

Step 3 Select the template whose variables you want to export.

Step 4 Click Deploy .

Step 5 Select devices in Device Selection area.

Step 6 Click the Export icon at the top right of the Value Assignment area.

Step 7 Click OK .

Exporting the variables without any data will export a blank file.

 

Related Topics

Importing CLI Variables


Step 1 Choose Configuration > Templates > Features and Technologies > CLI Templates .

Step 2 Click System Templates - CLI.

Step 3 Select the template whose variables you want to import.

Step 4 Click the Import icon at the top right of the CLI template page.

Step 5 Click OK .

 

Related Topics

Example: Updating Passwords Using a CLI Template

You might want to update the password for network devices on a regular basis, once every six months. To make the changes in a rolling fashion, you plan to perform the operation once for two regions every three months.

In this example, there are four custom dynamic groups, one for each region based on the cities in every region: North Region, South Region, East Region, and West Region. You must update the enable password for all of the devices in the north and south region. After this is complete, you plan to set another job to occur for the West and East region devices to occur three months later.

Before You Begin

The devices in these regions must have an assigned location attribute.


Step 1 If the four groups, North Region, South Region, East Region, and West Region, have not been created:

a. Choose Inventory > Device Management > Network Devices , then hover your mouse cursor over User Defined and click Add SubGroup .

b. In the Create Sub-Group area, enter:

– Group Name: North Region

– Group Description: List of devices in the north region

– Filter: Location > Contains > SJC-N

To determine the location of a device, choose Inventory > Device Management > Network Devices > (gear icon) > Columns > Location .

The devices for the new group appear under Device Work Center > User Defined > North.

c. Do the same for south, east, and west regions.

Step 2 To deploy the password template:

a. Choose Configuration > Templates > Features and Technologies > CLI Templates > System Templates-CLI .

b. Select the Enable Password-IOS template and click Deploy .

c. In the Device Selection area, open the User Defined groups and select the North Region and South Region groups.

d. In the Value Selection area, enter and confirm the new enable password, then click Apply .

e. In the Schedule area, enter a name for the job, the date and time to apply the new template (or click Now ), then click OK .

Step 3 After the job has run, choose Administration > Jobs to view the status of the job.

 

Related Topics

Deployment Flow for CLI Templates using the Wizard


Step 1 After creating the CLI template, click Deploy. The Deployment wizard page opens.

Step 2 Select the devices on which you want to deploy the template, then click Next to choose the input option.

Step 3 Select the mode in which you want to deploy the template. The options are Work Flow and Export/Import CSV.

Step 4 Click Work Flow option and click Next. See Step 6.

Step 5 Alternately, click Export/Import CSV option, to update all the template properties for the selected devices using the CSV Export/Import mechanism.

1. Uncheck the Do you want Optional Parameters check box, if you want to skip the optional fields while filling the configuration values in the CSV file.

2. Click Export CSV to download the CSV template to your local system.

3. Enter the configuration values for each specific device in the downloaded CSV template.

4. Click Import CSV to upload the updated CSV file.The input values automatically gets updated.

5. Click Next to input values.

Step 6 In the Input Values tab, you can toggle between Form and CLI view.

Step 7 After entering the necessary configuration values, click Next or CLI to confirm the device and template configuration values.

Step 8 Schedule the deployment job in the Schedule Deployment tab, if required:

  • Create a meaningful deployment job name, then specify whether to run the now or in the future.
  • You can also schedule the job to run periodically on hourly, daily, weekly, monthly or yearly basis.
  • You can configure the following job options:

Failure Policy

  • Ignore failure and continue—This is the default option. The devices are randomly picked up for template deployment. If the job fails on a device, the job skips the device and continues with the remaining devices. The Job results show success/failure information for all the selected devices.
  • Stop on failure—If the job fails to execute on a device, the job is stopped. The job results are updated only for the devices on which the job was executed successfully and for other devices which didn’t undergo template deployment, “Not Attempted” message is shown. The order of devices chosen for deployment will be same as the device order in Value assignment pane.
  • Copy Running Config to Startup—If the template deployment job succeeds, the running configuration of the device is copied to startup configuration.
  • Archive Config after deploy—Creates a new config archive job and archives the configuration of devices after successfully deploying the template.

Step 9 Click Next to view the job deployment summary.

Step 10 On the Deployment Summary tab, you will see the CLI view for each of the device.

Step 11 Click Finish to deploy the template.

Step 12 Click Job Status in the pop-up dialog box to launch the Job Dashboard to view the status of the job.

 

Composite Templates

Create a composite template if you have a collection of existing features or CLI templates that you want to apply collectively to devices. For example, when you deploy a branch, you need to specify the minimum configurations for the branch router. Creating a composite template allows you to create a set of required features that include:

  • Feature templates for the Ethernet interface
  • A CLI template for additional features you require

All of the templates that you create can be added to a single composite template, which aggregates all of the individual feature templates that you need for the branch router. You can then use this composite template to perform branch deployment operations and to replicate the configurations at other branches.

If you have multiple similar devices replicated across a branch, you can create and apply a master (golden) composite template for all of the devices in the branch. You can use this master composite template to:

  • Simplify deployment and ensure consistency across your device configurations.
  • Compare against an existing device configuration to determine if there are mismatches.
  • Create new branches.

You can create the following Composite templates:

  • System Templates - Composite
  • Composite Template

To view the list of Features and Technologies templates, choose Configuration > Templates > Features & Technologies > Composite Templates.

Related Topics

Creating Composite Templates


Step 1 Choose Configuration > Templates > Features & Technologies > Composite Templates > Composite Templates .

Step 2 Provide the required information.

    • From the Device Type drop-down list, choose the devices to which all of the templates contained in the composite template apply. For example, if your composite template contains one template that applies to Cisco 7200 Series routers and another that applies to all routers, choose the Cisco 7200 Series routers in the Device Type list.

If a device type is dimmed, the template cannot be applied on that device type.

    • In the Template Detail area, choose the templates to include in the composite template.

Using the arrows, put the templates in the composite in the order in which they should be deployed to the devices. For example, to create an ACL and associate it with an interface, put the ACL template first, followed by the interface template.

Step 3 Click Save as New Template. After you save the template, and apply it to your devices.

 

Related Topic

Deployment Flow for Composite Templates Using the Wizard


Step 1 Choose Configuration > Templates > Features & Technologies > Composite Templates > Composite Templates .

Step 2 Enter the required information in the Template Basic section.

" E' " (the letter "E" with an apostrophe after it) redirects here. For the letter "e" with an accent mark over it, see "É."

E-Prime (short for English-Prime or English Prime[1], sometimes denoted É or E′) is a version of the English language that excludes all forms of the verb to be, including all conjugations, contractions and archaic forms.

Some scholars advocate using E-Prime as a device to clarify thinking and strengthen writing.[2] A number of other scholars have criticized E-Prime's utility.

History[edit]

D. David Bourland, Jr., who had studied under Alfred Korzybski, devised E-Prime as an addition to Korzybski's general semantics in the late 1940s.[3] Bourland published the concept in a 1965 essay entitled "A Linguistic Note: Writing in E-Prime" (originally published in General Semantics Bulletin). The essay quickly generated controversy within the general semantics field[citation needed], partly because practitioners of general semantics[who?] sometimes saw Bourland as attacking the verb 'to be' as such, and not just certain usages.[citation needed]

Bourland collected and published three volumes of essays in support of his innovation. The first (1991), co-edited by Paul Dennithorne Johnston, bore the title: To Be or Not: An E-Prime Anthology[4] For the second, More E-Prime: To Be or Not II, published in 1994, he added a third editor, Jeremy Klein. Bourland and Johnston then edited a third book, E-Prime III: a third anthology, published in 1997.

Different functions of "to be"[edit]

In the English language, the verb 'to be' (also known as the copula) has several distinct functions:

  • identity, of the form "nouncopuladefinite-noun" [The cat is my only pet]; [The cat is Garfield]
  • class membership, of the form "definite-nouncopulanoun" [Garfield is a cat]
  • class inclusion, of the form "nouncopulanoun" [A cat is an animal]
  • predication, of the form "nouncopulaadjective" [The cat is furry]
  • auxiliary, of the form "nouncopulaverb" [The cat is sleeping]; [The cat is being bitten by the dog]. The examples illustrate two different uses of 'be' as an auxiliary. In the first, 'be' is part of the progressive aspect, used with "-ing" on the verb; in the second, it is part of the passive, as indicated by the perfect participle of a transitive verb.
  • existence, of the form "there copulanoun" [There is a cat]
  • location, of the form "nouncopulaplace-phrase" [The cat is on the mat]; [The cat is here]

Bourland sees specifically the "identity" and "predication" functions as pernicious, but advocates eliminating all forms for the sake of simplicity. In the case of the "existence" form (and less idiomatically, the "location" form), one might (for example) simply substitute the verb "exists". Other copula-substitutes in English include taste, feel, smell, sound, grow, remain, stay, and turn, among others a user of E-prime might use instead of to be.[citation needed]

Rationale[edit]

Bourland and other advocates also suggest that use of E-Prime leads to a less dogmatic style of language that reduces the possibility of misunderstanding or conflict.[5][6]

Kellogg and Bourland describe misuse of the verb to be as creating a "deity mode of speech", allowing "even the most ignorant to transform their opinions magically into god-like pronouncements on the nature of things".[7]

Discouraged forms and rationale for typical replacements[edit]

To be belongs to the set of irregular verbs in English, and some people, especially those who learned English as a second language, may have difficulty recognizing all its forms. In addition, speakers of colloquial English frequently contract forms of to be after pronouns or before the word not. E-Prime would prohibit the following words as forms of to be:

Disallowed words[edit]

  • be
  • being
  • been
  • am
  • is; isn't
  • are; aren't
  • was; wasn't
  • were; weren't
  • Contractions formed from a pronoun and a form of to be:
    • I'm
    • you're; we're; they're
    • he's; she's; it's
    • there's; here's
    • where's; how's; what's; who's
    • that's
  • E-Prime likewise prohibits contractions of to be found in nonstandard dialects of English, such as the following:
    • ain't
    • hain't (when derived from "ain't" rather than "haven't")
    • whatcha (derived from "what are you")
    • yer (when derived from "you are" rather than "your")

Allowed words[edit]

E-prime does not prohibit the following words, because they do not derive from forms of to be. Some of these serve similar grammatical functions (see auxiliary verbs).

  • become;
  • has; have; having; had (I've; you've)
  • do; does; doing; did
  • can; could
  • will; would (they'd)
  • shall; should
  • ought
  • may; might; must
  • remain
  • equal

Distinctions between past, present and future[edit]

"Is", "is." "is"—the idiocy of the word haunts me. If it were abolished, human thought might begin to make sense. I don't know what anything "is"; I only know how it seems to me at this moment.

— Robert Anton Wilson, The Historical Illuminatus Chronicles, as spoken by Sigismundo Celine.

E-Prime also discourages broad assertions crossing boundaries between past, present and future. General semantics' practice of dating and modern theories of scenario analysis and financial risk (based on statistics) emphasize a need to keep time frames of measurement and analysis carefully aligned. This avoids confusion between past events (which cannot be changed), the present (which one can test but not generally change) and future events (which one still has time to change even on a large scale), which can prevent noticing or taking an action to improve a future outcome.

Replacing statements including "to be" with those using becomes, remains and equals divides perception of, and expressions about, time more operationally into actual cognitive categories that humans know how to act upon:

  • To claim that one thing equals another is a claim only about the present with no reference to the future or the past—it can be disproved by direct testing (see falsifiability).
  • To claim that a thing remains another is to assert that a relationship exists in the present that was also true in the past, without reference to the future at all—it can be disproved by reference to history or memory.
  • To claim that one thing becomes another asserts a relationship between the present and the future, without reference to the past at all—it can be demonstrated undesirable or potentially false (though not disproved) with reference to intent.

Since history and memory (representations of or belief about the past) are distinct in all philosophy and ontology from plan, vision or intent (representations of our will to change the future), statements that confuse these are category errors: No statement about history or memory can imply a similar statement about a plan or vision or intent, nor vice versa - a distinction sometimes credited to Hume who distinguished also the morality of a statement from its truth. The very different ways that humans process memory or agree on history (about the past) must be, according to most philosophers, kept distinct from ways we employ logic on snapshots of axioms about our own immediate present and the ways we plan and envision an uncertain and collective future. By contrast, theology does assert high value for some unquestioned and eternal past-to-future equivalences. By substituting these three verbs, even without clarifying morality (ought, shall, should, must) or the actor(s) who do or did something, becomes/remains/equals makes clear what time frame of relationship is asserted, and disallows assuming one stable past/present/future timeline - known as single scenario planning or blind linearity and considered a grave error in risk analysis.

Other common replacement forms[edit]

Users of E-Prime also generally encourage other replacements that clarify subject, object, time frame, intent and scope of relationships, replacing:

  • statements assuming possession or ownership ("he is the landlord") with more operationally exact ones ("he owns the building and manages it") that describe the implications that the title or credential assumes.
  • statements assuming a combination of intention and probability ("they are moving") to distinguish the likely series of events and dependencies ("if they can sell their house they might move to Agrestic or if they can't, to Gardendale") in which the probability that an attempt to do something complex may fail is explicitly acknowledged.
  • statements assuming moral rightness or desirability of a state ("she is happy") with those that verify the difficulty of determining the state ("she smiles a lot, she seems happy, she would say something if her husband made her angry", etc.).

Psychological effects[edit]

While teaching at the University of Florida, Alfred Korzybski counseled his students to

eliminate the infinitive and verb forms of "to be" from their vocabulary, whereas a second group continued to use "I am," "You are," "They are" statements as usual. For example, instead of saying, "I am depressed," a student was asked to eliminate that emotionally primed verb and to say something else, such as, "I feel depressed when ..." or "I tend to make myself depressed about ..."[citation needed][page needed]

Korzybski observed improvement "of one full letter grade" by "students who did not generalize by using that infinitive".[8]

Albert Ellis advocated the use of E-Prime when discussing psychological distress to encourage framing these experiences as temporary (see also Solution focused brief therapy) and to encourage a sense of agency by specifying the subject of statements.[9] According to Ellis, rational emotive behavior therapy "has favored E-Prime more than any other form of psychotherapy and I think it is still the only form of therapy that has some of its main books written in E-Prime".[10] However, Ellis did not always use E-Prime because he believed it interferes with readability.[9]

Examples[edit]

Standard English    E-Prime

Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.
— New American Standard Bible, Matthew 5:3
 The poor in spirit receive blessings, for the kingdom of heaven belongs to them.
— modified from the New American Standard Bible[11]

Works written in E-Prime[edit]

  • Scoundrel Days: a memoir[12] by Brentley Frazer
  • Under The Eye of God, a science fiction novel by David Gerrold
  • A Covenant of Justice, a science fiction novel by David Gerrold
  • Worlds of Wonder: How to Write Science Fiction & Fantasy by David Gerrold has a chapter about (and written in) E-Prime
  • The New American Standard Bible in E-Prime, composed by Dr.David F. Maas[13]
  • Quantum Psychology (1990), by Robert Anton Wilson
  • A New Guide to Rational Living, a self-help book by Albert Ellis and Robert A. Harper
  • Overcoming Procrastination, by Albert Ellis
  • Sex and the Liberated Man, by Albert Ellis
  • Anger: How to Live With and Without It, by Albert Ellis
  • Feeling Better, Getting Better, Staying Better, Albert Ellis (This self-help book closely follows E-prime rules but "is not written in E-prime because I found it interferes somewhat with readability", as Ellis noted on page 2.)
  • Laws of Form by G. Spencer-Brown (except for one statement)
  • An Insider's Guide to Robert Anton Wilson, by Eric Wagner

Criticisms[edit]

Many authors have questioned E-Prime's effectiveness at improving readability and reducing prejudice (Lakoff, 1992; Murphy, 1992; Parkinson, 1992; Kenyon, 1992; French, 1992, 1993; Lohrey, 1993). These authors observed that a communication under the copula ban can remain extremely unclear and imply prejudice, while losing important speech patterns, such as identities and identification. Further, prejudices and judgments that are made are more difficult to notice or refute. James D. French, a computer programmer at the University of California, Berkeley, summarized ten arguments against E-Prime (in the context of general semantics) as follows:[14]

  1. The elimination of a whole class of sentences results in fewer alternatives and is likely to make writing less, rather than more, interesting. One can improve bad writing more by reducing use of the verb 'to be' than by eliminating it.
  2. "Effective writing techniques" are not relevant to general semantics as a discipline, and therefore should not be promoted as general semantics practice.
  3. The context often ameliorates the possible harmful effects from the use of the is-of-identity and the is-of-predication, so it is not necessary to eliminate all such sentences. For example, "George is a Judge" in response to a question of what he does for a living would not be a questionable statement.
  4. To be statements do not only convey identity but also asymmetrical relations ("X is higher than Y"); negation ("A is not B"); location ("Berlin is in Germany"); auxiliary ("I am going to the store") etc., forms we would also have to sacrifice.
  5. Eliminating to be from English has little effect on eliminating identity. For example, a statement of apparently equal identification, "The silly ban on copula continues," can be made without the copula assuming an identity rather than asserting it, consequently hampering our awareness of it.
  6. Identity-in-the-language is not the same thing as the far more important identity-in-reaction (identification). General semantics cuts the link between the two through the practice of silence on the objective levels, adopting a self-reflexive attitude, e.g., "as I see it" "it seems to me" etc., and by the use of quotation marks—without using E-Prime.
  7. The advocates of E-Prime have not proven that it is easier to eliminate the verb to be from the English language than it is to eliminate just the is-of-identity and the is-of-predication. It may well be easier to do the latter for many people.
  8. One of the best languages for time-binding is mathematics, which relies heavily on the notion of equivalence and equality. For the purposes of time-binding, it may be better to keep to be in the language while only cutting the link between identity-in-the-language and identification-in-our-reactions.
  9. A civilization advances when it can move from the idea of individual trees to that of forest. E-Prime tends to make the expression of higher orders of abstraction more difficult, e.g. "She is a student" is rendered in E-Prime, e.g., as "She attends classes at the university".
  10. E-Prime makes no distinction between statements that cross the principles of general semantics and statements that do not. It lacks consistency with the other tenets of general semantics and should not be included into the discipline.

According to an article (written in E-Prime and advocating a role for E-Prime in ESL and EFL programs) published by the Office of English Language Programs of the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs in the State Department of the United States, "Requiring students to avoid the verb to be on every assignment would deter students from developing other fundamental skills of fluent writing."[15]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • Bourland, D. David; Johnston, Paul Dennithorne, eds. (1991). To Be or Not: An E-Prime Anthology. San Francisco: International Society for General Semantics. p. 185. ISBN 0-918970-38-5. 
  • Bourland, D. David; Johnston, Paul Dennithorne, eds. (1997). E-Prime III! : a third anthology. Concord, California: International Society for General Semantics. ISBN 0-918970-46-6. 
  • Bourland, D. David, Jr., Jeremy Klein, and Paul Dennithorne Johnstone, (editors) (1994) More E-Prime: To Be or Not II. Concord, California: International Society for General Semantics.
  • French, James D. (1992) The Top Ten Arguments against E-Prime. ETC: A Review of General Semantics, v49 n2 p175-79
  • ________________ (1993) The Prime Problem with General Semantics. ETC: A Review of General Semantics, v50 n3 p326-35
  • Kenyon, Ralph (1992) E-Prime: The Spirit and the Letter.ETC: A Review of General Semantics, v49 n2 p185-88
  • Lakoff, Robin T. (1992) Not Ready for Prime Time. ETC: A Review of General Semantics, v49 n2 p142-45
  • Lohrey, Andrew (1993) E-Prime, E-Choice, E-Chosen. ETC: A Review of General Semantics, v50 n3 p346-50
  • Murphy, Cullen (1992) "To Be" in Their Bonnets: A Matter of Semantics. ETC: A Review of General Semantics, v49 n2 p125-30 Sum 1992
  • Murphy, Cullen (1992) "'To Be' in Their Bonnets: A matter of semantics" The Atlantic Monthly February 1992
  • Parkinson, Theresa (1992). "Beyond E-Prime". ETC: A Review of General Semantics. 49 (2): 192–195. 

[edit]

  1. ^Cascini, Gaetano, ed. (2004). TRIZ Future Conference 2004: Florence, 3-5 November 2004. Firenze University Press. ISBN 88-8453-220-5. Retrieved 15 June 2017. 
  2. ^Zimmerman, Daniel (Fall 2001). "E-Prime as a Revision Strategy". ETC: A Review of General Semantics 58.3. pp. 340–347. Retrieved 2009-01-10.  
  3. ^Cullen Murphy, "Just curious: essays", 1995, ISBN , 039570099X p. 78
  4. ^Bourland, D. David; Johnston, Paul Dennithorne, eds. (1991). To Be or Not: An E-Prime Anthology. San Francisco: International Society for General Semantics. p. 185. ISBN 0-918970-38-5. 
  5. ^Bourland, D. David, Jr. (1989). "To be or not to be: E-Prime as a tool for critical thinking". ETC: A Review of General Semantics. Institute of General Semantics. 46 (3): 202–211. Archived from the original on 2008-01-03.  
  6. ^Lundin, Leigh (2013-03-03). "Professional Tips: To Be or Not". On É. Miami: SleuthSayers. 
  7. ^Kellogg, E. W.; Bourland Jr., D. David. "Working with E-Prime: Some Practical Notes"(PDF). Et cetera. JSTOR 42577258. Retrieved 2015-04-06. 
  8. ^Ellis, Albert (2010). Albert Ellis: Evolution of a Revolution. Barricade Books. 
  9. ^ abEllis, Albert (2001). Feeling Better, Getting Better, Staying Better: Profound Self-Help Therapy. Impact Publishers. p. 2. 
  10. ^Ellis, Albert (1998). Ellis, Albert; Blau, Shaun, eds. The Albert Ellis Reader: A Guide to Well-Being Using Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy. Citadel Press. p. 312. ISBN 978-0-8065-2032-2. Retrieved 12 April 2017. 
  11. ^Maas, David. "The New American Standard Bible in E-Prime - The Gospel and Acts"(PDF). WebCite. The Institute of General Semantics. Archived from the original(PDF) on June 24, 2014. Retrieved 24 June 2014. 
  12. ^"Scoundrel Days: A Memoir". Penguin Books Australia. Retrieved 1 March 2017. 
  13. ^http://www.generalsemantics.org/the-general-semantics-learning-center/applications-of-general-semantics/the-new-american-standard-bible-in-e-prime/
  14. ^Compare: French, James D (1992). "The Top Ten Arguments Against E-Prime". ETC: A Review of General Semantics. Institute of General Semantics. 49 (2): 75–79. 
  15. ^Herbert, John C. "English Prime as an Instructional Tool in Writing Classes". English Teaching Forum Online. United States Department of State. Archived from the original on 2006-10-07. Retrieved 2009-10-06.  

External links[edit]

0 thoughts on “Book Of Prime Entry Assignment Discovery”

    -->

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *